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Jonas Salk

Developer of Polio Vaccine

In some instances, anti-semitism played a role. I always realized that was always a factor. In fact, I almost didn't get into medical school because of quotas at that time. So, I was prepared for other eventualities. I was already prepared to go to graduate school to study endocrinology, for example, if I had not gone into medical school. It becomes necessary to be prepared for alternative paths. There may be a greater opportunity when something is denied.
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Jonas Salk

Developer of Polio Vaccine

Reason alone will not serve. Intuition alone can be improved by reason, but reason alone without intuition can easily lead the wrong way. The both are necessary. The way I like to put it is that I might have an intuition about something, I send it over to the reason department. Then after I've checked it out in the reason department, I send it back to the intuition department to make sure that it's still all right. For myself, that's how my mind works, and that's how I work. That's why I think that there is both an art and a science to what we do. The art of science is as important as so-called technical science. You need both. It's this combination that must be recognized and acknowledged and valued.
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Barry Scheck

Co-Founder, Innocence Project

Clinical education was a pretty important development and I got in at the very beginning in legal education. I was able to start clinical programs -- not just this criminal law clinic, and the Innocence Project was started as a clinical program -- but lots of other clinical programs in the law school. And the reason I say that is that now there's a lot of talk about creating law schools only two years. I think that's because we need clinics for the second and third years to really enrich the experience. In the first year of law school what we teach students is -- quote -- how to think like a lawyer. Which really means we teach them analytical skills: how to read the cases, how to reason about precedent. And that is important, to at least understand how the court system works in that way, and the justice system works. But what clinical education always was supposed to do is if you had people with analytical abilities, then you can take them to the next level and start dealing with, in some instances, real cases. They could be small cases, it could be a test case, reform litigation. But you would actually look at institutions in an interdisciplinary way to try to solve problems. And you would do fact investigation, which really is quite important to the development of law, because you can have the analytical principles that decide cases, but who created the facts? And how you gather the facts, and how you marshal them and present them, is of enormous importance for lawyers.
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Barry Scheck

Co-Founder, Innocence Project

The clinical movement really changed legal education. Then there was a focus on seeing the client as a person and a greater understanding and engagement in ethical issues. So I think that -- and medicine has always worked like this, right? We have internships and residencies where you are mentored in the context of really treating patients. The clinical movement in American legal education I think has had an enormous impact. And certainly I think that all the work that I have done with my colleagues is not just let's say starting the Innocence Project and getting innocent people out of jail with DNA testing, which is this great scientific advance. But you know, we have -- it's an interdisciplinary approach. So we look at issues of psychology, with eyewitness misidentification and false confessions. And you have to learn something about molecular genetics, and serology, and physics, and pattern evidence, and statistics and probabilities, and all of the science -- cognitive science -- which is changing the world. And it has to be integrated into the law. I think that that's where we have really had our success. I don't think that that would have happened if I hadn't been involved in clinical education, because that's really what clinical education is supposed to be.
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Fritz Scholder

Native American Artist

They were nice enough, but they didn't know what art was. I did finally, accidentally, bump into a "professional artist" -- quotations -- an Indian artist, Oscar Howe -- in Pierre, South Dakota. A full-blooded Sioux, who had gone to Europe because of the war, found out about "modern art" -- quotations -- and it really messed up his mind in a way, but he did come away doing Indian subjects in a cubist style. I realized that art is very serious from him. After he would talk to us -- and he wasn't really a teacher, he just happened to be at the Pierre High School -- he'd have a place in the corner where he'd go and then paint his own paintings. So I would go and just watch, and I saw that it was very serious.
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